Obviously, there are different nuances between 212 and 411 rally, in 411 rally there was still riot happened because of various political interests among the characters who drove the mass action. Various speculations assessed that there was a presence of some leaders with political interests that wanted to take advantage of this rally to overthrow the government. The 411 rally is not just a rally about Ahok blasphemy, but a rally that turned people to overthrow the Government.
In spite of these all, the gathering of millions Muslims in Monas on December 2, 2016, is colossal and dramatic for Indonesian Muslims who come from various Islamic organizations of different ideology and different views (Khilafah). Itshows that they can be united with the same vision and political interests to suppress the prosecution of alleged blasphemy of Ahok. This gives us an awareness that Indonesia can be united in diversity. When we see competition, rivalry or enemy, there will always 1001 ways to discredit and blame each other. Conversely, when we see Indonesia as one nation-state, we will found 1001 ways to unite as one.
We Are the Muslim
Indonesia is a democratic, pluralistic and diverse country, with various Islamic mass organizations that have different schools of thought (mahzab). Even though we have various mahzab, Muslims constitute a single identity that “we are the Muslims,” thus the 212 rally in the form of Dhikr and Friday prayers became a huge and spectacular rally without any friction among the people involved in the action. In the beginning, there might be Muslims who have different views against the action, but “we are the Muslims” are an extraordinary energy that unites millions of Muslims.
Differences amonggroups and Islamic organizations can bring their prejudice, negative stereotypes, in-group favoritism and ethnocentrism that creates barriers or sub-group among Islamic organizations. However, the identification process which is a process of conceptualization to whichextent members of a group or sub-group defines themselves as a group (Ellemers, 1993) finally reunite themselves into a common identity that is Muslim.
One of the identification processes is often carried out by formulating a common goal (superordinate goal). Conflicts between Islamic organizations due to differences can be united with a common goal (superordinate goals). Also, the merging of differences within the group (in-group) of different views is somewhat a process of social comparison, the process of distinct suppression between in-group (Muslims) and out-group (Tajfel and Turner, Hogg & Abrahams, 1990).
We cannot deny the opinion saying that there is no political interest, no particular importance in some race, no interest of Islam with non-Muslims, in defending Islam rally. Of course, the union of millions of Muslims in the rally is unavoidable from the “superordinate goal” and the process of “social comparison.” Despite that defamation of religion associated with political figures, contestants of the elections and certain races, the legal proceedings against the blasphemer (Basuki Tjahaja Poernama) is the only common goal of Muslims (superordinate goal). The blasphemer (Basuki ThajajaPoernama) is an outside group (social comparison) that drives Muslims to unite in the rally.
Whenever a particular group offenses another group, the other groups will experience the process of “identification” and “social comparison”, resulting in prejudice, stereotypes or negative bias between groups, assuming the group is more superior than the other groups and considering the value of the group is better than other groups. This can occur not only between different religious groups, even within the same religion with a different mahzab, identification and comparison process will happen and put social conflict and differences into a worse situation.
The legal process on blasphemy case against Basuki Tjahaja Purnama has started; the hearing was scheduled to be held on December 13, 2016. After the judicial proceedings, of course, some groups feel that there should be no action, and instead just stay to oversee the process. However, there could be another purpose so that defending Islam rally could continue to unfold. Another common goal such as to imprison Ahok or other common political objectives could be the object to unite the millions of Muslims in a single action.
Indonesia as a common identity
After 212 rally, there was Bhinneka Tunggal Ika 412 parade, which was considered as a counter of 212 rally. The driving motors of this Parade were the leaders of the parties that support Basuki Tjahaja Poernama - Djarot Saiful Hidayat (which are Nasdem, Golkar, and Hanura). They can’t dismiss people allegations that said that Bhinekka Tunggal Ika Parade was a counter against 212 rally,although when we agreed that Unity Parade is a counter to 212 rally means that we justify that there is pollitical interest in 212 rally.
Despite their political interests in Unity Parade and 212 rally, it is not in our proportion to compare both actions because those actions were not directly campaigning for particular candidates for Governor.
Things that attract people from both of that action are the fact that millions of people participate in the event that was held in Jakarta. When Muslims are offended by Ahok remark, Muslims all over Indonesia are united in action.On the other hand, when the Unity Parade took place, the entire area was covered with Indonesian culture. On 212 rally, the strains of devotions and prayer shook the soul of all participants, and when Unity Parade, the strains of Indonesia Raya songs touch the heart of all participants.
People’s prayer in 212 rally enchanted millions of people to the creator of universe. So that all those involved in the prayer increased their faith and belief that there is only the power of God who can decide everything with His wills. Of course, the increasingbeliefon the greatness of God is not going to happen when every heart is filled with anger and hostility with others.
The same thing happened in Unity Parade, participants simultaneously sang the Indonesian national anthem, as if the whole soul dissolved and felt the struggle of forming NKRI and the greatness of God that unite thousands tribe, hundreds of islands, and various religion and culture. People’s seriousness in singing Indonesia Raya increased the feeling of patriotism and nationalism. Of course, the spirit of patriotism and nationalism will not appear when egoism filled their soul. Having a common identity as Indonesia will make them have an emotional attachment to Indonesia, perception, and judgment as a group of Indonesian and depersonalization (reducing the values of the sub-group or individual and become part of a large group, namely Indonesia).
Indonesia as a common Identity cannot survive if every religion, ethnicity, region, culture and different groups feel most entitled to Indonesia, and hence impose their will unilaterally on religious, ethnic, regional, cultural and other communities.
The Islamic rally and Unity Parade provided lessons in life that the political elites, officials and public figures in Indonesia have to be a role model by not offending religious, ethnic, culture and so on in speaking before public. Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) should not wait for a particular person or entity to debase religion but should have to make a fatwa about words and actions that can be considered as an insult to the religion. Furthermore, MUI has to be a moderator among Muslims. Also, people also put expectations in Inter-Religious Harmony Forum (FKUB) to be the moderator in regulating the role of religion in the Indonesian state affairs so that the country should not be forced to follow a particular religion. Well-performed MUI and FKUB’s role will at least give hope to people that there will be no longer Qur’an writing being createdpn transparent women clothes, there will be no longer Qur'an writing on carpet in a band concert, there will not be even dissolution of Christians prayer like in Singapore on December 6, 2016 that was done by a certain Islamic organizations.
*) Social and behaviorcommentators